Ghana is located on the West Coast of Africa, referred to as the Gold Coast due to its abundance of the precious metal.  It is the second-largest producer of cocoa, with about 15% of the world market.  Cocoa is dominated by Ghana’s next-door neighbor, Cote D’Ivoire, which has spent the last decade in disarray after a civil war and the ensuing post-war violence.  Despite the fact that agriculture accounts for about 40% of GDP and more than half the workforce, Cocoa is the only commercial crop of economic significance.  While other industrial crops, including cotton, rubber, and tobacco are grown, they are small potatoes compared to cocoa and other exports.  (The major exports are timber, gold, diamond, bauxite, and manganese.  It is difficult for African economies to be competitive in global agriculture markets due to agriculture subsidies in the U.S. and Europe, efficient farming practices in Brazil and Argentina, and the scale of rice production in Thailand and Vietnam.  For a more complete explanation, see here.)

The main food crops grown in Ghana are maize, yams, cassava, and, to a lesser extent, sorghum, and millet.  More recently, rice Cocoa is the only with a specific framework for facilitating trade.  All cocoa grown for export must be sold to the Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD), which aggregates the crop for sale in the international market.  International demand and the presence of a single buyer to coordinate trade means the market for cocoa is guaranteed.   COCOBOD has experimented over the last thirty years with various market liberalization tactics in order to make the industry more competitive, including privatizing more companies and investing in the development of the market.  Technoserve currently runs the Cocoa Abrapopa project in Ghana, which has raised farmer incomes by a remarkable 270%.

In terms of staple crops, Ghana is largely a net importer.  Of all the key food crops, Ghana is only self-sufficient for one: plantains (which are delicious).  Not surprisingly, global maize production is dominated by the United States, which offers generous subsidies to corporate farms in the Midwest, and Brazil and Argentina, which have some of the most efficient agricultural processes in the world.  Rice has not always been a staple crop in Ghana, and only recently has it become more common.  The majority of the rice in the country originates in Vietnam and Thailand, where a combination of small-scale Green Revolution coupled with a high labor capacity yields top-quality jasmine rice at a fraction of the cost of local producers.  Rice quality is rated on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the highest quality.  Rice from Southeast Asia receives a 2.4 on average.  In contrast, Ghanaian rice receives a 4.7.  As a result, Thai and Vietnamese rice are popular in the urban areas, where customers are less price-conscious (even though the difference in price is not huge).   Other top rice importers include the United States and Pakistan.

One area where Ghana excels is in the fruit sector.  The country produces flavorful varieties of pineapple and mango, which are exported to Europe and sold at a premium in supermarkets as fresh cut fruit.  As a friend told me, the Brits are price-insensitive when it comes to eating mangoes at Christmas time, which presents an opportunity for Ghana’s fruit producers.

Ghana is highly competitive in one key cash crop – cocoa, for which it controls 21% of the world market – and involved in the exportation of several others.  While agriculture accounts for 37% of GDP, this percentage is spread across hundreds of thousands of 1-2 hectare, smallholder farms.  The big export-industries – timber, gold and other mining activities, and, very soon, oil – are the key drivers of economic growth.  But there are still a lot of opportunities for import-substitution and raising food output for consumption, even if export is out of the question in some cases (i.e. maize, rice, poultry, etc.).  This is what the ADVANCE project is trying to do, and its strategy will be the subject of my next post.


"Josh Weinstein is a visionary. I read his blog every day." - Bono

4 thoughts on “The State of the Agriculture Sector in Ghana”

Chris P · December 22, 2010 at 6:10 pm


Do you have any reading you’ve come across that does a good explaining the relative natural resource qualities that allow someone to gauge the potential for one type of crop or another? Or overview on the inputs (and cost) required to do undergo different agricultural activities.



Prabodh Kaushish · July 13, 2015 at 2:34 am

We have been developing & marketing the organic products in agriculture for quality improvement and produce yield increase. We can share our knowledge & experience for increasing agriculture production.

afram aaron · May 11, 2016 at 1:49 pm

Please I want to farm either rubber or cotton in Ghana and want an article on it

My Role in ADVANCE and Technoserve in Ghana | Develop Economies · December 10, 2010 at 8:26 am

[…] I have explained how the agriculture supply chain works and talked about the state of the agriculture sector in Ghana.  It is time to talk about the […]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Related Posts

Development Economics

Corruption in a Trump Presidency

In December 2009, I moved to Philippines just before the presidential election.  Like most of the former leaders of the Philippines, the outgoing president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, was exiting under a cloud of scandal.  The Read more…

Development Economics

Racism in America

I. Introduction In August of 2014, a police officer shot dead Michael Brown, a black teenager from Ferguson, Missouri, blowing the lid off a debate about racism in America. Protesters filled the streets, yelling “Hands Read more…

Development Economics

Why Do Some Countries Have It So Bad?

Open a newspaper today and you’ll be bombarded with a panoply of terrible news. Ebola is ravaging West Africa, with a projected 10,000 new cases per week and the possibility for 1.4 million people infected Read more…